J. Grau, C. Azorín, J.L. Benedé, A. Chisvert, A. Salvador
Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction is one of the most widely used microextraction techniques currently in the analytical chemistry field, mainly due to its simplicity and rapidity. The operational mode of this approach has been constantly changing since its introduction, adapting to new trends and applications. Most of these changes are related to the nature of the solvent employed for the microextraction. From the classical halogenated solvents (e.g., chloroform or dichloromethane), different alternatives have been proposed in order to obtain safer and non-pollutants microextraction applications. In this sense, low-density solvents, such as alkanols, switchable hydrophobicity solvents, and ionic liquids were the first and most popular replacements for halogenated solvents, which provided similar or better results than these classical dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction solvents. However, despite the good performances obtained with low-density solvents and ionic liquids, researchers have continued investigating in order to obtain even greener solvents for dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. For that reason, in this review, the evolution over the last five years of the three types of solvents already mentioned and two of the most promising solvent alternatives (i.e., deep eutectic solvents and supramolecular solvents), have been studied in detail with the purpose of discussing which one provides the greenest alternative.
Keywords: deep eutectic solvents, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, green chemistry, supramolecular solvents.
Use of green alternative solvents in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction: A review. J. Grau, C. Azorín, J.L. Benedé, A. Chisvert, A. Salvador, J. Sep. Sci. 45 (2021), 210-222.