Green, rapid and simultaneous determination of ‘alternative preservatives’ in cosmetic formulations by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

C. Azorín, J.L. Benedé, A. Chisvert, A. Salvador

cosmetics-2389779_1920

Abstract

Some hydroxylated compounds commonly used in cosmetic formulations including short chain glycols, benzylic alcohols, and organic acids show antimicrobial activity, although they are not considered as preservatives according to the existing European legislation. These ‘alternative preservatives’ are not exempt of potential side-effects for cosmetics users. The aim of this work is to develop a simple and affordable analytical method useful for the simultaneous and green determination of fourteen compounds used as ‘alternative preservatives’ in cosmetic samples with different matrices. The proposed method allows a rapid sample preparation by simple dissolution or dispersion of the sample in ethanol using ultrasound-assisted leaching of the analytes from the cosmetic matrix. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is used for the analysis of the samples. Working conditions for the instrumental measure and the quantification of analytes were studied. The method was found to have high sensitivity and good precision (relative standard deviation below 13%) as well as low limits of detection (i.e., 0.01·10−3–2.14·10−3% w/w) and quantification (i.e., 0.04·10−3–7.14·10−3% w/w). The method was successfully applied to five commercial cosmetic samples of different composition. Recovery values near 100% were obtained. Each sample was found to contain at least three of the analytes of the study and their concentrations were determined with low standard deviations. The analytical features of the proposed method and the obtained results agree with the principles of Green Analytical Chemistry and make it a useful tool for controlling these alternative preservatives in the cosmetic industry in order to guarantee quality and safety of the products.

    Keywords: Alternative preservatives; Cosmetic products; Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; Hydroxylated compounds; Ultrasound-assisted leaching

    Referencia y link al texto completo:
    Green, rapid and simultaneous determination of ‘alternative preservatives’ in cosmetic formulations by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. C. Azorín, J.L. Benedé, A. Chisvert, A. Salvador, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 209 (2022), 114493.