Low toxicity deep eutectic solvent-based ferrofluid for the determination of UV filters in environmental waters by stir bar dispersive liquid microextraction

A. Duque, J. Grau, J. L. Benedé, R. M. Alonso, M. A. Campanero, A. Chisvert

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Abstract

In this work, a low toxicity deep eutectic solvent-based ferrofluid is presented for the first time as magnetic fluid to be used as an efficient solvent in liquid-based microextraction techniques. This ferrofluid is made of a hydrophobic deep eutectic solvent, composed by menthol and thymol in a 1:5 molar ratio as carrier solvent, and oleic acid-coated cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4@oleic acid) magnetic nanoparticles. This material was characterized via magnetism measurement, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and density measurement. The determination of UV filters in environmental water samples was selected as model analytical application to test the extraction performance of this new ferrofluid by employing stir bar dispersive liquid microextraction, prior to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The response surface methodology was used as a multivariate optimization method for extraction step. Under the optimized conditions, good analytical features were obtained, such as low limits of detection between 7 and 83 ng L−1, good repeatability (relative standard deviations, RSD (%) below 15%), enrichment factors between 46 and 101 and relative recoveries between 80 and 117%, proving the good extraction capability of this ferrofluid. Finally, the method was successfully applied to three environmental waters (beach and river waters), finding trace amounts of the target UV filters. The presented low toxicity deep eutectic solvent-based ferrofluid results to be a good alternative to conventional solvents used in liquid-phase microextraction techniques.

    Keywords: Deep eutectic solvent, Ferrofluid, Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, Stir bar dispersive liquid microextraction, UV filters, Water samples

    Referencia y link al texto completo:
    Low toxicity deep eutectic solvent-based ferrofluid for the determination of UV filters in environmental waters by stir bar dispersive liquid microextraction. A. Duque, J. Grau, J. L. Benedé, R. M. Alonso, M. A. Campanero, A. Chisvert, Talanta, 243 (2022) 123378.